Effects of Using a Second-Screen Application on Attention, Learning, and User Experience in an Educational Content
Using a secondary device while viewing a primary device (i.e., TV), or media multitasking, is now common. Numerous researchers and practitioners have attempted to introduce secondary devices into education as a new learning environment providing additional information to the user. However, the learning-related effects of using a second screen remain controversial. This study examined the effects of second-screen-application use on attention, learning performance, and user experience per content relevance for three primary contents (i.e., videos) requiring different amounts of cognitive load: low, medium, and high. Second-screen use reduced learning performance and user satisfaction when the primary content required high cognitive load. However, participants exhibited increased learning performance, concentration, and satisfaction with the primary content requiring medium-cognitive-load when highly relevant information was presented on the secondary screen simultaneously. Based on these findings, guidelines were suggested for designing a second-screen application without degrading users’ learning and experience.
A Second-Screen Web Service Framework based on Multimedia Package Distribution
The media multitasking is general user behavior nowadays as the second screen devices, such as tablet PCs, are widely spread. The content providers and advertisement industry figure out this phenomenon as an opportunity and attempt to develop various types of second screen services. However, the conventional second screen services are confined in the broadcasting and over-the-top application. Therefore, a second screen Web service framework based on multimedia package distribution is proposed, which is compatible to different kinds of operating system, heterogeneous network and various Web browsers. The multimedia package, which consists of multiple multimedia objects, is distributed to the second screen device according to the user profile. The proposed model is implemented to verify the Web-based second screen service framework and multimedia package concept detailing the functionality of each component.